ON THE STREET WHERE WE LIVE


One of the best parts of our museum is where we are located. We are proud to be part of the family at the Wheeler Kansas City Downtown Airport. Opened in 1927, it served as Kansas City's commercial passenger terminal until 1972. Today, it remains a vibrant airport, primarily serving general aviation traffic. On occasion, some pretty interesting things go on here and we'd like to share some of them with you.



June, 2017


There are more pictures to view. See the link at the end of the article

The airport received a special visitor the week of June 12th. The "Madras Maiden" is a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and it's quite an impressive airplane. It was manufactured in 1944 and served the military through 1959. Since it was manufactured toward the end of World War II, it did not see combat action. But... it sure was equipped for it! 

The plane is flown by the Liberty Foundation. A non-profit organization, they use it as a "flying museum", dispatching it throughout the United States to exhibit this important part of our country's history. We enjoyed meeting members of the Liberty Foundation's crew and appreciated them allowing us to board the aircraft. It was an awesome experience. We invite you to find out more about the Liberty Foundation (as well as where and how to see the plane) by accessing their website at www.libertyfoundation.org

We'd also like to mention our neighbors at Signature Flight Support. The B-17 spent much of the week on their ramp. We share the building at 10 Richards Road with them and the constant activity around their operations area provides a great backdrop for our museum. They also keep a watchful eye on our museum's JetStar II airplane, which is also parked on their ramp. We appreciate having them as our neighbors!


We took more pictures and invite you to view them on our museum's photo page at https://goo.gl/photos/cihkcN29ZeAx47Tb6


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COAST-TO-COAST (Part I)

We'd like to take you on a trip from New York to Los Angeles. Been there... Done that? Not like this. The year is 1929 and a most incredible journey is about to begin with a train ride from New York's Pennsylvania Station to Columbus, Ohio. Upon arrival there, a Ford Tri-Motor airplane awaits. And that's just the beginning...



Forty-Eight Hours
Whatever time of day you're reading this article, our guide can tell you with a large degree of certainty that there is an airplane flying from New York to Los Angeles. He checked. On the day this was written, 52 scheduled passenger flights made that non-stop trip. Thirty-seven flights originated at Kennedy Airport and 15 departed Newark Airport. The distance is about 2,500 miles. "Gate to gate" times vary, but flights average a little over six hours1. Every day, thousands of passengers fly the route. We doubt they think much about it, as they traverse the country at 35,000 feet. They might give it some thought, however, if they knew what you're about to find out.

Our journey begins 88 years ago. Then, the airline that would eventually become TWA inaugurated its legendary train/plane service between New York and Los Angeles. On July 7, 1929, twenty passengers (among many others) boarded the Pennsylvania Railroad Airway Limited at New York City's Pennsylvania Station, for an overnight trip to Columbus, Ohio. Once there, two Ford Tri-Motor airplanes2 bearing the name of Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT), were waiting to fly them further west. After four en route stops, they would arrive in Waynoka, Oklahoma, where a Santa Fe Railway3 train was then boarded for an overnight ride to Clovis, New Mexico. From Clovis, two other TAT Tri-Motors were boarded for a three-stop flight, terminating at the Grand Central Air Terminal in Glendale, California (near downtown Los Angeles). The final tally: Two overnight train rides, two flights and nine landings. Elapsed time: About 48 hours. 


A Story to Tell 
We have a story to tell. It's one of those that has a little of everything - vision, innovation, the indomitable human spirit, money and politics. There's even a cartoon rabbit thrown into the mix (more on him later). We'll follow the journey through photographs, documents and artifacts contained in our museum and archives. There's so much to tell, we'll do it in two parts. Part One will take us from New York City's Pennsylvania Railroad Station to Columbus on the evening of July 7 and we'll then spend the next day flying Columbus-Indianapolis-St. Louis-Kansas City-Wichita-Waynoka. At that point, our guide will need a very long break, so we'll end there. Part Two, will find us pulling into Clovis, after our overnight train ride from Waynoka. Aboard another Tri-Motor, we'll take a four-stop flight to Los Angeles. Ready? Well... before we roll out of Pennsylvania Station, we'll need to give you some background history. Our guide thinks it'll be very helpful to know and promises he won't bore you. Once that's taken care of, we'll be on our way, finding out some interesting things about TAT, its Tri-Motors and the cities along the route. At each stop, we'll fast- forward and describe what things are like there today, 88 years later. 


The Airway Limited at New York City - ready To roll.
(image courtesy of State Historical Society of Missouri)

Research
As you can imagine, the amount of material published about this event is voluminous. For this article, our guide will focus on the journey itself, using a variety of sources, including all the 1929 issues of Plane Talk, TAT's company newspaper. Fortunately, the State Historical Society of Missouri (SHSMO) maintains a digital collection of all the 1929 Plane Talk issues, which allowed us to fill in some we didn't have in the TWA Museum's collection. They also made the digital images from all those issues available to us, relieving us of the delicate task of handling the actual newspapers. You'll notice SHSMO referenced in several photographs.


SAL +  WAE  + TAT = TWA
Since this is the TWA Museum Guides blog, it's probably a good idea to take a minute and let you know how this whole story adds up to TWA.Throughout this article, we'll refer a lot to Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT). Through a series of mergers and acquisitions, TAT would become part of the newly formed Transcontinental and Western Air (TWA4). It's a complicated story, so our guide will give you a very broad overview, as a lot happened in a very short period of time. TAT was founded in 1928. Their expressed purpose was to establish a fast, safe and comfortable means to travel across the United States. It would be accomplished by using a combination of TAT aircraft and established Pennsylvania Railroad and Santa Fe Railway trains. In 1927, Jack Frye, Paul Richter and Walt Hamilton started Standard Airlines (SAL), flying between California and Arizona. In March 1930, not long after TAT began its transcontinental operation, Standard Airlines was sold to Western Air Express (WAE), with Jack Frye becoming its Chief of Operations. Finally, additional mergers followed, resulting from the Airmail Act of 1930. Three large airlines emerged. One of them was TWA, formed in October 1930, when TAT and WAE merged. After some sorting out of the executives from the merged companies, Jack Frye would become TWA's President in 1934, with Paul Richter and Walt Hamilton serving as Vice-Presidents. 

Got it all? Good. Oh... one more thing. Not long after starting transcontinental service, TAT merged with Maddux Air Lines and was officially known as TAT-Maddux. To keep things simple, we'll reference the company as TAT throughout the article and up to its merger into TWA in October 1930. 
.   

New York City, 1927
To best understand the formation of TAT, we need to examine what the world was like in the spring of 1927. Passenger air travel in the United States was in its infancy, mostly scattered and experienced by only a select few people. Then in May 1927, Charles Lindbergh completed his historic flight from New York to Paris. A wave of air travel enthusiasm swept the country and some people of vision seized the opportunity. Not long after Lindbergh's return home, a small meeting took place at the Engineers' Club in New York City. Colonel Paul Henderson, former Assistant Postmaster General and then Vice-President of National Air Transport, started the meeting by drawing a map of the United States on an envelope. He added a line across the map, identifying a route of logical stopping points, to be traveled by train and airplane. The proposed route would run reliably and consistently, using the most modern aeronautic and navigation technology available. Colonel Henderson made certain the people best suited to undertake the task were in that room with him. One of them, C.M. Keys, was an aviation executive, banker and an early proponent of passenger air service in the United States. Also present was Charles Lindbergh. Less than a year after that meeting, funding was procured, commitments were signed and Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) was born. 


Good guys to know: Lindbergh, Keys and Henderson.
(TAT Plane Talk images courtesy of SHSMO)

By the way, we know you're wondering, so we'll address it up front. It was decided to use trains for part of the journey because of some concerns:
  • Flying in east coast weather.
  • Flying across the Allegheny Mountain range.
  • TAT "did not think the time right to transport human cargo in the darkness."5
These concerns were quickly addressed after TWA was formed in 1930 and true coast-to-coast air travel began shortly thereafter.


Quite a Plan
The plan was ambitious. After first obtaining five million dollars in capital, TAT started by identifying Columbus, Ohio as its easternmost terminal and began building infrastructure westward to Los Angeles. It was an unprecedented effort. A state-of-the-art communication system was engineered and constructed, allowing each (train and plane) station along the line to talk with the others quickly and reliably.  The need for clear and consistent air-to-ground communication capabilities was also addressed. To supplement the existing structure of the U.S. Weather Bureau, TAT built the largest (up to that time) private weather observation and reporting network, utilizing the latest scientific methods for atmospheric measurement and weather forecasting. Airfields from Columbus to the west were chosen and then brought up to standards necessary to land heavy airplanes on well-drained and solid runways. Of special importance was the establishment of comfortable passenger terminal facilities. And if no airfield existed (a common situation in the southwest), TAT built one from the ground up. Lighting to properly illuminate the airfields was installed and beacons were placed along the entire route (again, to supplement the less comprehensive existing system). As mentioned, night flying was not initially planned, however, lighting and beacon systems were installed for potential delays or emergencies. It was also foreseen that night flying would eventually become a reality. TAT selected Ford Tri-Motors for its fleet and a nationwide search identified the best aviators to fly them. C.M. Keys became TAT's President and Colonel Henderson its Vice-President. Colonel Lindbergh accepted the Chairmanship of the airline's Technical Committee. Lindbergh's contributions would be key, including surveying potential airfields, selecting equipment (most notably, the Ford Tri-Motor) and overseeing pilot/mechanic recruitment and training. Every contingency was considered. Keys made it very clear, "We begin operations only when we are properly ready." 



Getting it done!
Top: The terminal in Columbus, OH, being constructed by the city.
Bottom: TAT was on their own in much of the west, here literally building

 an airfield at Waynoka, OK.
 (TAT Plane Talk images courtesy of SHSMO) 

They Weren't Alone
It should be noted here that TAT's idea was not a new one. There was competition. In fact, the first organized transcontinental air/rail journey had already taken place earlier in 1929, when Jack Frye's Standard Airlines flew between Los Angeles and El Paso, TX, connecting with a train of the Texas and Pacific Railway to and from the east coast. Other airlines utilized air/rail transitions in places like Kansas City, Mo, Cleveland, OH and Garden City, KS. We chose to highlight TAT because of their scale, reach and the comprehensive structure they planned and built. 


Pennsylvania Station, New York City
Opened in 1910, New York's Pennsylvania Station was a true landmark. Covering roughly eight acres, trains arrived from and departed to every direction, through massive rail tunnels dug under the Hudson and East Rivers. On July 7, 1929, the station saw a major event as the Pennsylvania Railroad Airway Limited prepared to depart for Columbus. A Ford Tri-Motor graced the station's massive central hall, with Amelia Earhart standing close by. Truth be told, Amelia was just doing her job, as she was a TAT employee, serving as Assistant to the General Traffic Manager. At 6:05 PM, Charles Lindbergh sent a message from Los Angeles to New York. The message activated a huge bell at Pennsylvania Station, signalling the departure of the Airway Limited. Ms. Earhart and about fifty VIPs were among the passengers on board. As the train rolled west, TAT prepared two Tri-Motor aircraft at Columbus, awaiting the train's arrival the next morning, scheduled for 7:55 AM.    


Amelia Earhart standing by the Ford Tri-Motor, the City of New York,
at Pennsylvania Station, July 7, 1929.
(photo from the Collections of The Henry Ford)      
Fast-forward to today: To the dismay of railroad enthusiasts, architects and most everyone else, Pennsylvania Station was demolished in 1963. While the underground tracks and platforms remained, new buildings replaced the station's above-ground structure. Construction included a new Madison Square Garden and office towers. One tower, 2 Penn Plaza, would eventually house TWA's New York reservations and sales offices for several years.      


Columbus, Ohio
Upon arrival in Columbus, passengers officially entered the TAT network. The city of Columbus developed their airport with TAT in mind. An impressive new terminal building and hangars were erected. The Pennsylvania Railroad constructed a train platform adjacent to the terminal. The transition from train to plane was little more than a short walk. Two runways (the longer being 3,500 feet) were constructed with a concrete base and paved with bituminous macadam to handle the heavy Tri-Motor aircraft. Don't worry, our guide had no idea either. Bituminous macadam is actually a type of pavement made of crushed stone, held together with a binding material. That technique is still in use today, in the paving of vehicular roads. We point this out because throughout our guide's research, the words "pavement" and "drainage" were seen numerous times. Most U.S. airfields in the 1920s were little more than cleared tracts of land. Landings on muddy and bumpy ground often occurred. Such conditions were unacceptable to TAT.  

It was a big day in Columbus. Despite rain, 3,000 spectators were on hand to watch the two Tri-Motors take off to the west. Amelia Earhart joined passengers on one of them. Despite the rain in Columbus, TAT's meteorological bureau was cranking out observations and reported clear skies to the west. So at 8:15 AM (only twenty minutes after the Airway Limited's arrival), the Tri-Motors were on their way to their next stop, Indianapolis, Indiana. After the departures, TAT hosted a breakfast in their Columbus hangar. Attendees included Henry Ford and his son Edsel. We must assume the Tri-Motor's tires were Firestones, as company founder Harvey Firestone was present as well.


Goodbye Columbus! TAT aircraft (the City of Columbus and the City of Wichita)
 prepare to head out on July 8, 1929.
(TWA Museum photo)
Fast forward to today: The unique and beautiful original terminal building (pictured above) remains today at the southeast boundary of the John Glenn Columbus International Airport. 
TAT's original hangar still stands as well, adjacent to the terminal. As the airline industry grew, the city of Columbus quickly outgrew its original terminal. It was expanded and remodeled many times, almost tripling its size. In 1958, a new terminal complex was built elsewhere at the airport. After 1958, the original terminal building was put to alternative general aviation uses and began to experience a slow decline. In 1985, a major deconstruction and renovation was undertaken and the aforementioned expansions were removed, exposing the original structure. For almost two decades the structure was a viable business complex. By 2008, the building was empty and quickly deteriorated thereafter. In 2013, a civic-minded group stepped forward to preserve the old terminal building. POCAT (Preserving the Original Columbus Air Terminal) was formed to stabilize and redevelop the terminal. Working with the CRAA (Columbus Regional Airport Authority), aviation, community, architecture-related organizations and individuals, POCAT raised sufficient funds (including a matching gift from the Columbus Foundation) to stabilize the building. CRAA has since installed a new permanent roof and the building is ready for creative re-development. POCAT's goal is the completion of a careful and historically-relevant renovation, with the building eventually becoming a permanent, profitable and self-sustaining entity. 
(Note: Our guide thanks Tom Kromer and Jim Thompson of POCAT, for their assistance in writing this section).


On to Indianapolis
During the 180-mile flight from Columbus to Indianapolis, it's likely many passengers unfolded bound maps provided by TAT. Since the Tri-Motors typically flew at 5,000-6,000 feet or below, the maps were useful in spotting cities and landmarks along the way. 


An original TAT passenger route map, on display in our museum.

Here's something interesting. Starting In October 1929, passengers flying TAT were treated to the first in-flight movies. We're not kidding. When tired of map reading, you could look at a screen in the front of the cabin to watch some newsreels, supplemented with the cartoon adventures of "Oswald, the Lucky Rabbit". Conceived by Walt Disney, it's believed that Oswald was Walt's inspiration for Mickey Mouse. The October 1929 issue of Plane Talk described the projector and accompanying movie equipment:

"Of compact construction, the machine itself weighs less than eight pounds. With screen and batteries, the total combined weight of the equipment is 34 pounds, a vital factor in its adaptation to the airplane."6

So, the next time you're at 35,000 feet, deciding which episode of House Hunters to stream to your iPad, remember the photo below:
  

What's a WiFi?. Viewing on-board movies in 1929.  
(TAT Plane Talk image courtesy of SHSMO)
The scheduled 9:13 AM arrival into Indianapolis took place at Stout Field. Already an existing airfield, necessary improvements to the runways were made. TAT and the Curtiss Flying Service partnered to have a hangar and terminal facility built. Weather, communication and lighting facilities were installed as well. Passengers spent just fifteen minutes at Stout Field before becoming airborne again, heading to Lambert Field, St. Louis, Missouri.   

Fast-forward to today: As a passenger airport, Stout Field's time was short. By 1931, TWA (and other airlines) were using the newly-constructed Indianapolis Municipal Airport (today known as Indianapolis International Airport). Stout Field was used briefly as an Army Air Corps base during World War II and eventually as an airfield for the Indiana National Guard and Indiana State Police. The last active runway was closed in 1961. Today, the area partly contains commercial buildings and is home to divisions of the Indiana National Guard. What was Stout Field's longest runway is now part of Stout Field Drive, the main roadway through the area.


Meet Me in St. Louis
Leaving Indianapolis at 9:28 AM, passengers likely got hungry during the two-hour flight to St. Louis. Because the first "hostess" was not hired until 1935, TAT "couriers" offered refreshments. These versatile young men, mentioned in an earlier blog article: Presenting The Case for TWA's Flight Attendants , provided a variety of passenger services. Duties included baggage handling, passenger pick-up and cabin meal service. Food service on this leg? We'll let passenger, Mr. S.S. Smith describe it: "The hot bouillon with wafers served aloft about 9:30 in the morning is a wonderful feature for the passengers."7  

A 12:03 PM scheduled arrival brought passengers to Lambert Field in St. Louis, a place that would become very familiar to later generations of TWA passengers and employees. At the time, Lambert was viewed only as a temporary location for TAT service. TAT and the Curtiss Flying Service acquired acreage right across the Mississippi River, in Illinois and intended to move their operation there. It never happened. As development of the new airport moved forward, pressure from Missouri politicians influenced TAT to remain at Lambert. TAT agreed to house their company headquarters on the Missouri side as well. TAT's passengers were likely unaware of such political gyration, instead thinking about the full lunch that was going to be served en route to Kansas City. 

The TAT "nerve center" at its St. Louis headquarters. The two
teletype machines were constantly "clicking out" information
about weather, flight activity and passenger reservations.

(TAT Plane Talk image courtesy of SHSMO)
Fast-forward to today:  Lambert Field, St. Louis and TWA became synonymous starting in 1982, when TWA began building its major hub operation there. It would also move its headquarters from New York to St. Louis, in 1992. At its peak of operation, TWA offered over 500 daily domestic and international departures from Lambert. That proposed airport on the Illinois side did become operational and is today the site of the St. Louis Downtown Airport. Lambert Field continues operation today as one of the Midwest's major airports.


On to Kansas City
After another fifteen-minute stop, TAT passengers left St. Louis at 12:18 PM, for the 227-mile leg to Kansas City. As mentioned earlier, a luncheon was served aloft, prepared by the Fred Harvey Company. The "Harvey House" was among America's first successful restaurant chains, known to many in the mid-western and western United States. Harvey's company also provided meals aboard the Santa Fe Railway (to be ridden by passengers later that evening). The Harvey meals on TAT were generally well received and we can tell you they were more substantial than bouillon and wafers.


A TAT courier serves lunch. Note the slipcovers on the Tri-Motor's
passenger seats. TAT's original seats were made of light-weight aluminum.
We also assume this photo was staged, as it was shot through an open cabin door.
(TAT Plane Talk image courtesy of the SHSMO)
Kansas City Municipal Airport was reached in about 2 1/2 hours. Of all the stops on the TAT route, Kansas City is our guide's favorite! His attitude is understandable, as TAT airplanes literally rolled past the site of what today is our TWA Museum. Scouted as an airport site by both the Army Corps Reserve Association and Charles Lindbergh, it was built by the city and opened in 1927. Three months after his flight to Paris, Lindbergh landed at Kansas City in his famed Spirit of St. Louis aircraft to attend the airport's dedication. In 1929, the city constructed a modern passenger terminal, again to the standards requested by TAT. Interestingly, the airport's two runways were not paved but were surfaced with cinders and coated with heavy oil.  After their fifteen-minute stay, passengers were headed to the next stop, Wichita, Kansas.   


It is estimated that over 20,000 people were present for Charles Lindbergh's
arrival at Kansas City Municipal Airport's dedication, On August 17, 1927. Aside from the

runways and some facilities, much of the airport area in 1927 was undeveloped.
(TWA Museum photo)
Fast-forward to today: Kansas City Municipal Airport quickly grew in size and popularity. In 1931, the newly-formed TWA selected the airport for its headquarters. The headquarters building is today the home of our museum. The original 1929 passenger terminal and airport infrastructure were constantly expanded to keep up with the evolution in commercial aviation. The inability to expand the airport's footprint dictated a new airport in a roomier location. In 1972, commercial passenger traffic moved to the new Kansas City International Airport, constructed twenty miles to the north. Today, the original Municipal Airport (now known as the Charles B. Wheeler Downtown Airport) remains quite active, handling mostly general aviation traffic.  



Wichita, Kansas
Leaving Kansas City just after 3:00 PM, Wichita was reached in a little under two hours. TAT divided operations into Eastern and Western Divisions. Wichita represented the westernmost station of the Eastern Division and as the plane landed at Wichita, passengers began to see the transition. In Wichita, a combination of drier climate and "perfect natural drainage" allowed TAT to land Tri-Motors right on the prairie turf. A true passenger terminal was not yet constructed, so TAT used part of a sixty-foot wide hangar (surrounded by a concrete apron) for early passenger facilities. Construction of a true terminal (by TAT standards) began in 1930, however, the Depression resulted in the terminal taking five years to complete. On a more pleasant note, we're certain Amelia Earhart was pleased to be in Wichita, TAT's only station in her home state of Kansas (even if only for fifteen minutes). 

It became a long day for the passengers aboard the two Tri-Motors that left rainy Columbus that morning. There was one more leg left, a short flight to Waynoka, Oklahoma. At 5:11 PM, they were once again in the air.

Fast-forward to today: The site of TAT's Wichita stop eventually became Wichita Municipal Airport, one of the nation's busiest airports in the 1940s. The United States Air Force established a presence there and in 1952, the property was officially given to the Federal government. This served as the beginning of today's McConnell Air Force Base. In 1954, all commercial operations were moved from McConnell to the present Mid-Continent Airport (recently re-named the Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport). The beautiful 1930s original Wichita Municipal Airport Terminal has been renovated and today is the home of the Kansas Aviation Museum and Kansas Aviation Hall of Fame. 
  
The interior of today's Kansas Aviation Museum in Wichita.
(photo from kansasaviationmuseum.org)


Hello, Waynoka
A 6:24 PM landing in Waynoka, Oklahoma ended the day's flying. Passengers had by now logged over 1,000 air miles and five takeoffs and landings, all in an eleven-hour period of time. Waynoka was the entry for TAT's Western Division. A hangar erected there served as a transfer point, as all passengers and their baggage were directed to TAT's  "Aero car". This unique conveyance was actually a luxury 16-passenger trailer (with very comfortable seating) that was pulled by a Chrysler Roadster (a Studebaker President was used at some other TAT stations).

The Aero car's destination was Santa Fe Railway's Waynoka Station. There, passengers ate dinner at the Harvey House restaurant before boarding their overnight train to Clovis, New Mexico. At Clovis, two new Tri-Motors awaited. 


Hop aboard the "Aero car"
(TAT Plane Talk image courtesy of SHSMO)
And with the above, we'll end Part One of our journey. A final word or two about Waynoka. The property was purchased and developed by TAT. Due to its relatively dry climate, paved runways were not deemed necessary. Instead, they were constructed by repeatedly furrowing the soil and adding oil during the process. When the oil settled, the runways were leveled and graded, providing a strong surface. This process would be repeated at other Western Division stations.   

Fast-forward to today: Waynoka's moment in the sun was short, as the plane/train transfer there was needed for just over a year. In 1939, TAT's hangar was dismantled and moved to Little Rock, Arkansas (where it still stands). Today, the former runways are wheat fields. Waynoka's railroad station (built in 1910) still stands and is on the National Register of Historical Places. It serves as a museum and the home of the Waynoka Historical Society.  


Good Night, Waynoka 
As the Santa Fe train (named "The Missionary") leaves Waynoka at 11:00 PM, our guide will take a break. Part Two will follow in a few weeks and we'll pick things up in Clovis, New Mexico. In Part Two, we'll explore the trip through the incredible landscape of the southwestern United States as our Tri-Motors fly from Clovis to Albuquerque, NM,  Winslow and Kingman, AZ and then Los Angeles. We'll have many more interesting facts and images to share with you, including the inauguration of service eastbound from Los Angeles, piloted by Charles Lindbergh. The train is rolling. We'll see you in Clovis.  

The entrance to Waynoka's railroad station, in 1929.
Photo from the Waynoka Historical Society
(www.waynoka.org)

On a Final Note
About a month ago, the Airline Archivists/Historians Association held their 2017 conference at our museum. At the time of the conference, our guide was beginning work on this article and the timing was superb! At the conference our guide connected with some people who had in depth resources about the subject of our article. In addition to Tom Kromer and Jim Thompson from POCAT (mentioned in the Columbus portion of our journey), he met Don Peters, a former TWA pilot who also works with POCAT. Great historical information about our home, the Wheeler Kansas City Downtown Airport, was provided by Lezley Mix, the Assistant Airport Manager. Our guide also gained access to priceless information thanks to Archivist Whitney Heinzmann of the State Historical Society of Missouri. We suspect you are now pretty familiar with their TAT-related collection items. If you would like to see SHSMO's entire digital collection of TAT Plane Talk and later editions of TWA's company newspapers, check them out at: http://digital.shsmo.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/twa .

Article Written by Wayne Hammer
Edited by Larry Dingman
Copy editing by Pam Tucker
Special thanks to Ruth Richter Holden, the daughter of the late Paul E. Richter.


Footnotes:

1.  Travelmath.com
2. For TAT's inaugural eastbound and westbound flights, two Tri-Motors flew, in tandem. Once operations normalized, one plane per flight was used. 
3. The line's official name was the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. In the article, we'll refer to its more familiar name of the Santa fe Railway.
4. Transcontinental and Western Air's official abbreviation was T&WA, although the"&" was often omitted from publications, signs and airplane liveries. The "&" was officially dropped in 1950 when the airline was renamed Trans World Airlines. 
5. Airway Age magazine, Vol. 10, Nbr. 7, July 1929.
6. TAT Plane Talk newspaper, Vol. 1, Nbr. 10, October, 1929
7. TAT Plane Talk newspaper, Vol. 1, Nbr. 12, December, 1929

Digital issues of TAT Plane Talk are cataloged at the Missouri State Historical Society Research Center, Kansas City. Folder:Trans World Airlines (TWA) Records (K0453).   

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****COMING NEXT****


Our next article is almost ready to go. In it, we'll take you on the first fully coordinated train/plane  journey from New York to Los Angeles. We'll start out on the Pennsylvania Railroad on July 7, 1929. The next morning in Columbus, Ohio, we'll board a Ford Tri-Motor aircraft of Transcontinental Air Transport (the predecessor to TWA) and continue west. Getting there will be half the fun, as we'll provide interesting history, observations and information, along the way. We hope you'll come along!

Whether you're on our mailing list or follow us on Twitter or Facebook, we'll let you know when it's published. For now, here are some pictures from the upcoming article:














While you're waiting, here's a short video to prepare you for the trip. You've probably never heard of Waynoka, Oklahoma, but you'll know it well soon!




FOLLOW UP TO THE LOS ANGELES TIMES ARTICLE


May 2, 2017


We know many of you have read the March 27, 2017 Los Angeles Times article about our museum and our response to it (http://twamuseumguides.blogspot.com/2017/04/los-angeles-times-article-about-twa.html). In the time since we posted this information, we have received several inquiries about any correction(s) made by or response(s) received from The Times. You should be aware that the following information was added to their original online article on April 11, approximately one week after we sent our response to them:

For the Record
APR. 11, 2017, 10:45 AM
This article incorrectly says the plane outside the TWA Museum is a Boeing 737-800. It is an MD-80.

We at the museum were disappointed to see that only one of several inaccuracies and concerns we pointed out was addressed. So, on April 21, we wrote again to Nigel Duara (the journalist), his editor and the reader representative of The Times, giving them the opportunity to further address our concerns. We also informed that on May 2, we would post the above and any additional responses from them. We did not receive any reply from them, so we'll conclude that what you see above is their final word.

We are now moving on and consider this episode closed. Nevertheless, this experience reminded us of a couple of important things. First and foremost, our museum has great friends and supporters. Our blog page with The Times article and our response was viewed over 3,000 times. We have received dozens and dozens of encouraging comments. We are very appreciative of your support. Secondly, we were reminded that people and institutions doing good work must stand up to those who treat them unfairly and unkindly. Are we averse to criticism? Not at all. In fact, we know maintaining our mission is hard work and are always striving to improve our museum. We end this dialogue with Mr. Duara and the Los Angeles Times as we began it, contending their treatment of us was wrong and undeserved. We doubt Mr. Duara's career or success as a journalist will be influenced by his dealings with us. But maybe, just maybe, this experience will sit in the back of his mind. We hope so.

Time for us to get back to work. Our most recent blog article about TWA's L-1011 has met with a great response. We're already working on the next article and look forward to bringing it to you soon.






    











The Board, staff and volunteers
TWA Museum

THE TriStar OF OUR SHOW

With a unique combination of beauty, grace and technology, the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar flew millions of TWA passengers from 1972 to 1997. Large-scale models of the aircraft greet visitors when they first enter our building at 10 Richards Road and again upon stepping into our main gallery. It was an impressive airplane. And as you've probably guessed, it has a story to tell.



A "Special" Debut
On May 10, 1972, TWA's first L-1011 (ship N31001) arrived at the airline's maintenance and overhaul base at Kansas City International Airport. The May 22, 1972 edition of TWA Today (the company's employee newspaper) would describe its reception as, "An army of TWAers, who paused from their labors to witness its arrival."1 The day, however, wasn't yet over as the plane then took a round trip "shakedown" flight to Indianapolis. Upon its return to the overhaul base, it flew its approach over downtown Kansas City and Kansas City's Downtown Airport, the home of TWA's first headquarters (and our museum today). There was extensive local media coverage and a press conference was given by TWA senior management, during the flight.


The headline in TWA Today announces the L-1011's arrival.

After reading this, our guide began to wonder. There must have been something really special about this airplane. TWA had received its first Boeing 747 just two years earlier and the nineteenth 747 had joined the fleet just seven months before the L-1011's arrival. How was it that the L-1011 garnered so much attention in the shadow of nineteen shiny, new 747s (destined to become the most heralded aircraft in commercial aviation)? Our guide was intrigued, so he looked at more articles and documents in our museum's archives and then tapped the best resources, our volunteers who knew the airplane inside and out.

The story that follows begins with the L-1011's development and how an overseas bankruptcy almost doomed the aircraft and its manufacturer before the first production model left the factory. Then, we'll tell you about the airplane's career at TWA, through documents, pictures and the words of our museum volunteers who flew it, worked the cabin and maintained it. Sit back. It's quite a story.

"...and drive carefully."
Lockheed Chairman Daniel Haughton (right) hands over the
"keys" of TWA's first L-1011 to TWA's Ed Zak.


Some History

To really gain an appreciation of this airplane and its successful 25-year existence with TWA, we need to go all the way back to its beginnings. While being brief is often a challenge for our guide, he'll try to keep it short and to the point. The L-1011 was manufactured by the Lockheed Corporation, in Palmdale, California (near Los Angeles). Lockheed and TWA were hardly strangers, as TWA successfully flew earlier Lockheed products, including the renowned Constellation. At the dawn of the commercial jet age,   Lockheed was dealing with issues related to its model 188 Electra turboprop (manufactured 1957-1961). These issues, unfortunately, included two fatal accidents, attributed to design flaws. While Lockheed was dealing with related financial, legal and perceptual issues, Boeing and Douglas were establishing firm footings in the commercial jetliner market. By the mid-1960s, Lockheed, anxious to build its own jetliner, proposed a three-engine, medium-long range, domestic, widebody aircraft that could also utilize medium-length commercial runways (such as those at New York's LaGuardia Airport). The model would be called the L-1011. The name "TriStar" was chosen through a company-wide contest.     

Lockheed committed to producing the most passenger and airline-friendly plane possible. Being their first passenger jet, research and development expenses to achieve these lofty goals would be high. At the same time, the newly combined McDonnell Douglas Corporation was building a competitor, the DC-10. McDonnell's conservative business approach and Douglas' prior experience with their DC-8 and DC-9 jet aircraft provided an early economic edge over Lockheed. The competition between the two would quickly turn heated, as airline customers would "play" the two companies against each other, thus eroding the profits of both. In moving forward, Lockheed felt they had a more desirable product, believing they could sell at least 500 L-1011s (the number needed to make manufacturing the airplane profitable). As it turned out, sales never even came close to 500, as only 250 units were produced. Other events during the plane's early days would create additional challenges.

Unlike the DC-10, Lockheed designed the L-1011 around a sole engine type, the British-manufactured Rolls-Royce RB.211. Lockheed believed the RB.211 to be the most advanced and quietest engine available. But, on Feb. 4, 1971 (literally months away from the L-1011's first scheduled deliveries), Rolls-Royce went into receivership, stating they lacked the money to continue building engines. With both their futures at stake, Rolls-Royce and Lockheed asked their respective governments for help. Help did arrive and Rolls-Royce resumed manufacturing the RB.211. This experience, however, cost Lockheed two valuable resources: time and money. Meanwhile, some airlines that had ordered the DC-10 were already flying the aircraft and Douglas was steadily improving the airplane's design, introducing international versions and a variety of engine options. Some argue that the Rolls-Royce delay was a key factor in the eventual demise of the L-1011. Nevertheless, Lockheed moved ahead, delivering its first L-1011s to Eastern Air Lines and TWA in 1972. Unfortunately, Lockheed was also creating its own problems from within. 

In 1976, news surfaced that Lockheed had bribed members of the Japanese government to choose the L-1011 over the DC-10 for Japan's All Nippon Airways. The Japanese Prime Minister was convicted of violating Japan's foreign exchange laws. At Lockheed, both the board chairman and vice-chairman resigned. The fallout hurt Lockheed's reputation on many levels. Financially, it's estimated the scandal effectively cost Lockheed in excess of a billion dollars. Nevertheless, Lockheed continued manufacturing the L-1011. TWA, Eastern and Delta were the largest operators and the airplane proved to be popular. Despite these operational successes, Lockheed continued to hemorrhage money on the program and in 1981, it decided to stop selling the L-1011. TWA took delivery of its 36th and final L-1011 on May 27, 1982. The 250th and last TriStar produced rolled out of Lockheed's Palmdale factory in 1984. They would never again manufacture a commercial airliner. 

(TriStar trivia: The Lockheed Corporation was named after its co-founder, Allan Loughead. To prevent mispronunciation, the company name was spelled phonetically). 


Where to Start?
If you're one of our regular blog readers, you know by now that our guide's biggest gripe is there's never enough time to tell our visitors (and blog readers) all the things that excite him about the museum and its exhibits. And so it is with the L-1011 and its 25-year history with TWA. What to include or exclude? How best to compress this huge story into one brief but riveting blog article? Not easy. So, as he does at the museum, our guide will stop at our impressive L-1011 cutaway model and highlight points about the exterior of the plane, what's inside and what went on behind the scenes during TWA's ownership.


Technology and Beauty
Few things in life are as satisfying to behold as the marriage of high technology and beauty. Years before Steve Jobs would envision the iPhone, engineers and designers at Lockheed had it down. When an L-1011 sat at the gate, people noticed. Many were drawn to the tail. The rear engine's "s-shaped" intake duct and the exposed rear section of the engine blended the airplane's body and tail into one sleek structure. Up front, a stylishly curved nose seemed poised to challenge the air it would cut through at 500+ miles per hour. While the competing DC-10 was very similar in appearance, some felt it lacked the elements of the L-1011's smooth design. At the museum, we think every airplane is a thing of beauty, but the L-1011 was in a class by itself. 


Stacking up the L-1011 and the DC-10.
Similar... but different.


The Operation
On June 25, 1972, TWA's first L-1011 revenue flight departed St. Louis for Los Angeles. Flight 177 was flawless, arriving two minutes ahead of schedule. As the airplane approached Los Angeles, Captain Gordon Granger announced to the passengers, "I thought you might be interested to know that we have been on autopilot since takeoff roll and that we are going to make an automatic landing."2 Flight 177's passengers were learning about one of the L-1011's most celebrated features: the first commercial aircraft with full auto-land capability. Equipped with a highly advanced automated guidance system (certainly by 1972 standards), the L-1011 could literally land itself, most notably in the FAA termed "Cat IIIA landing conditions". This meant zero vertical visibility and just 700 feet forward visibility at touchdown. Captain Granger was one of many TWA pilots who would be impressed with the L-1011. In his book, A Life Aloft, retired TWA Captain Walt Gunn wrote:

"The autoland is embarrassingly smooth. A sense of guilt was felt when passengers commended me for the landing when credit should have been given to the computer-driven autopilot, with which I had little influence beyond monitoring its precision."3

Not to be completely upstaged, Captain Gunn also described his technique for manually landing the L-1011 and how it responded with a smooth landing, known in pilot parlance as a "grease job". In such cases, Captain Gunn could accept passengers' praise without the guilt! 

Retired TWA pilot (and museum volunteer) John Coleman also remembers the L-1011. John began his 26-year TWA career in 1966, working as an aircraft mechanic in the hangar at the current Downtown Airport (right by our museum!). In 1968, John became a TWA pilot, initially serving as a flight engineer on the Boeing 727 and then a first officer on the Douglas DC-9. He spent the latter part of his career as a first officer on the 727 as well. In the mid-1980s, John also qualified as an L-1011 flight engineer and eventually, an instructor. During his tenure as an instructor, he occasionally flew trips on the L-1011 as flight engineer.  

John Coleman takes a break from our chat to
pose with one of the museum's L-1011 models

"It  was the technology,"  John says, adding that the L-1011 really was a bridge to the high technology seen in today's jetliners. John mentioned the aircraft's ability to automatically identify and correct system faults (thanks to a bank of computers sitting in a bay below the cockpit). John also recalls the clear, well-placed instrumentation, as well as the spaciousness and excellent outside visibility offered by the cockpit. We at the museum are fortunate to have John and his great experience available to our visitors and us. Our guide thanks John (and Captain Granger and Captain Gunn) for giving us a glimpse into the cockpit.


Under The Hood
As the old saying goes, "If you really want to know how something works, ask someone who has to fix it." Museum volunteer Larry Chalberg is that someone. Larry's 34-year career with TWA began in 1966, as a technician in the instrument shop at TWA's Kansas City maintenance and overhaul base. After a short stint in Los Angeles, he returned to Kansas City, working as an aircraft mechanic at the overhaul base and eventually "on the line" at Kansas City International Airport. Larry well remembers the workings of the L-1011, first encountering it in Los Angeles. He recalls that an L-1011 spending the night in Los Angeles was sometimes ferried to nearby Burbank Airport for overnight modification work (Lockheed owned the Burbank airport at the time, using it for L-1011-related work). He occasionally rode along on the ferry flights as an observer in the cockpit. Recalls Larry, "It was amazing to watch it auto-land. The pilots had to be aware not to instinctively touch the control column (possibly disabling the autopilot). The landings were incredible."

Larry also remembers the airplane as, "mechanic friendly." Changing out many components and instruments in the cockpit was quick and easy. He also remembers the comprehensive diagnostic process performed by the airplane's built-in test equipment computers (known as BITE). The plane's Rolls-Royce Engines were easily accessible, including the tail (#2) engine, which could be accessed from the ground (see the L-1011/DC-10 illustration from an earlier section and you'll get the idea). Larry recalled one evening in Kansas City when an L-1011 needed a main gear tire and brake change. According to Larry, "The whole operation was a breeze and took thirty minutes. It took longer to get the parts over to the airplane than it did to perform the job!"     
  
Larry Chalberg knew the L-1011 well, having worked on
it numerous times during his career with TWA.


Making it Tick
After speaking with John and Larry, our guide was motivated to find out even more about what made this plane tick. For that he sat down with museum guide Art Lujin. An electrical engineer by training, Art's 25-year TWA career included working on many L-1011 systems. (A note: Art's years with TWA (1992-1997) coincide exactly with the period TWA flew the L-1011). Art's first big assignment at TWA? Spending several weeks with Lockheed engineers and technicians in California, learning the plane's systems and avionics. 

"It was ahead of its time", Art recalled. In addition to the auto-land system, Art remembers other impressive features of the L-1011, such as its Direct Lift Control (DLC). DLC accomplished smooth descents by automatically adjusting the rate of descent without significant changes to the pitch (angle) of the aircraft. This was accomplished by the inner-wing spoilers being deployed in conjunction with the flap settings. Yet another example of how the L-1011 was engineered for both passengers riding and pilots flying it.  

Art remembers constant modifications and improvements made to the L-1011 during its service with TWA. Auto-land in Cat IIIA conditions was improved to Cat IIIC, which effectively allowed landing with zero visibility, vertically and horizontally (at airports equipped with compatible instrument landing systems). Art also mentioned that after an initial "break in" period, the Rolls-Royce engines proved to be reliable and efficient. "The L-1011 was my favorite of all of TWA's airplanes," was how Art summed up our conversation. 


A View From Inside
While just a relative handful of people piloted or worked on the L-1011, millions of TWA passengers flew in it. And it's here that things get quite interesting. Museum visitors can view seven L-1011 scale models, including the aforementioned "cutaway" model, restored by volunteer Dennis McCarthy (read how Dennis did it in our blog article: "Our Model Citizens"). This model illustrates the interior configuration of TWA's first L-1011s. With 30 seats in first class and just 176 in coach (well below Lockheed's maximums), TWA and Lockheed designed a roomy and comfortable interior. The dreaded "middle section" in economy class was made more desirable by having only four seats, separated by an extended width armrest in the center (no need to play "dueling elbows" with your row mate). TWA proclaimed you were "never more than one seat from the aisle."

If casual was your thing, the L-1011 was your plane, as both first and economy class had lounges. And if absolute casualness was what you were seeking, ten center row seats in first class allowed you to swivel and rock. For meal service, flight attendants could place a table between two pairs of swivel seats to allow you to gather 'round the dinner table. Now, if all of this seems to good to have been true, our guide has provided pictorial evidence below (thanks to our Archives folks). It might be a good idea to memorize these pictures and recall them the next time you find yourself jammed into a middle seat, between a chatty adult and his or her belligerent child. 

Don't fill up on the bread! First class mealtime table dining,
1972, L-1011 style.

Lounging and mingling in first class. Note the swivel seats
in the center of the cabin.

A pleasant day in economy class, as well. In this Lockheed mock-up cabin,
a small coat closet (lower left) separated pairs of middle section.TWA opted
 to go with wider armrests.
Our L-1011 cutaway displays the economy
 class forward lounge area.

Change, of course, is inevitable and it came quickly to the L-1011's interior. Operational and revenue considerations forced TWA to periodically reevaluate seating. The interior would undergo several revisions. Over time, the first class swivel and rocking seats gave way to permanent, forward-facing seats. Lounges in both first and economy class were removed and the 206-passenger capacity would eventually expand to as many as 275, including the introduction of a five-seat center section (goodbye, wide armrest). Not all was gloomy, however. The size of the L-1011 (and Boeing 747) allowed TWA to introduce a roomy Ambassador (business) class cabin, starting in the 1980s. 


And... The Galley!
Galleys typically aren't a noteworthy part of an aircraft, but on the L-1011, they were. On the models TWA flew, the galley was below the passenger seating level, effectively in the "belly" of the airplane. While our guide likes to feel he can describe most anything in words, he'll get some help from the picture below:
Photo courtesy of Jon Proctor
(www.jonproctor.net)
      
Yep, sandwiched (pardon the pun) between cargo and luggage containers was a 1,350 cubic foot galley. Lockheed designers wanted to keep meal preparation activity away from the passengers, thus allowing for more space and less commotion in the cabin. Two elevators ("lifts") transported food carts and crew members between the galley and main level of the airplane (note the lifts in the background). By the way, the picture itself is special. That's TWA employee Jon Proctor, inspecting the galley on TWA's first L-1011 during its first days of service in June 1972. John served as an on board DCS (Director of Customer Service).:

(More TriStar trivia: Lockheed designated each transport as a "lift", so as to not confuse it with the term "elevator", which was a part of the exterior tail section of the aircraft).

The lift ascended to a central cabin service center, one of three galley areas in the cabin. Initially, food carts were parked on "mushrooms" (locking pins to secure the heavy food carts in place) at each primary exit. Trays were then hand-carried to passengers, keeping the aisles clear of carts. This procedure was eventually ended when more mobile and efficient "Singl-Serve" carts were used. This also allowed the removal of additional economy class galley space, allowing for more passenger seating to be installed.  


Flight Attendant Perspectives
No tour of TWA's L-1011 would be complete without chatting with some of our volunteers who worked the cabin. You may recall meeting Pam Blaschum and Joe Ballweg in our recent article about TWA's flight attendants ("Presenting The Case For TWA's Flight Attendants"). Since they both worked on the L-1011, we sat down for a few minutes and chatted.

"I loved that airplane", were the first words from Pam, adding that she often bid L-1011 trips. The smooth rides and landings were what she remembers most. Among her favorite stories is the time she and another flight attendant were sitting in nearby jump seats with limited outside visibility. The plane had just made one of its characteristically smooth landings and as Pam tells it, "Betsy was across from me making announcements, etc. As we cleared the runway and started toward the gate, I leaned as far forward as I could and asked, 'When are you going to make the landing announcement?' Her reply was, 'As soon as we land.'" Pam also recalls the distinctive deep bass-like roar of the Rolls-Royce engines when they spooled up for taxi and takeoff.

Joe Ballweg especially remembers the L-1011's lower-deck galley. He commented that on meal flights, one of the flight attendant crew members would be stationed in the galley full-time, preparing meals. That role was bid by crew seniority and some crew members would always take it. Occasionally, if it appeared the assignment was falling to a "junior" flight attendant, a re-bid saw a crew member with more meal preparation experience assume the role. While impressed by the L-1011, Joe expressed his preference for the Boeing 747. Said Joe, "Both planes were amazing, but I personally preferred the 747. Although much larger than the other Boeing products we flew at the time, I felt more of a sense of familiarity and consistency when working on the 747." Joe's comments again reminded our guide of the unique coexistence the L-1011 and 747 maintained during their careers with TWA. Preferences of one over the other were numerous and varied, both among passengers and employees.      


And So it Was
On September 3, 1997, Captain Rob Bottoms commanded TWA flight 840, from Los Angeles to New York's JFK airport. It was the final flight for TWA's L-1011, marking the retirement of the aircraft's 25+ year lifespan at the airline. It was a career any retiree would look back upon with pride. While originally designed for medium-long range domestic service, Lockheed eventually developed models that could fly internationally. Additionally, TWA and Lockheed worked together to modify several TWA domestic L-1011s, allowing them to fly internationally as well. TWA's L-1011s would thus become a common sight in Europe and the Middle East. For many years, the L-1011 and Boeing 747 worked together, creating a formidable fleet of international aircraft (ultimately joined by the Boeing 767 in the late 1980s).   

A busy afternoon at JFK in 1988. Three L-1011s and five 747s are
poised to begin their evening journeys.
(photo courtesy of Capt. Mark Berry: www.marklberry.com) 

Domestically, L-1011s dominated TWA's coast-to-coast services and later helped to build service between the Northeast and Florida. Starting in the 1980s, they became common sights at TWA's St. Louis hub, serving high-density domestic markets. It's also worth noting that for many Kansas City-based TWA employees, the sight of an L-1011 at the gate in St. Louis was always a welcomed sight, as it meant more space available seats and a good shot at getting home that day! They also could look forward to a smooth and comfortable flight. 

Airplanes are funny things. They often take on a life of their own, transcending their model names and numbers. And so it was with the L-1011 TriStar. This was indeed a special airplane.

On a Final Note
As noted, Lockheed's sales projections for the L-1011 were half of what was hoped. Ending production in 1984, the company lost a substantial amount of money on the program. Lockheed would return to its primary businesses of developing military aircraft and defense-related aerospace systems. In 1995, Lockheed merged with the Martin Marietta Corporation. In contrast, sales of the competing McDonnell Douglas DC-10, and its derivatives, would number over 600 (including the DC-10, KC-10 military tanker/transport and the later-generation MD-11). Operational issues with the DC-10 and competition with Lockheed took a toll on McDonnell Douglas as well, one of the factors leading to its merger with Boeing, in 1997.  

TWA would fly 36 of its own L-1011s from 1972 through its retirement. One year after the last L-1011 flew, TWA retired its Boeing 747. These two originators of the widebody era defined a unique and special place in TWA's history. Many of us at the museum were privileged to be a part of that era and our guide has been pleased to share some of it with you.  
Our L-1011 cutaway model occupies a prominent place
in our museum's main gallery, next to the 747.


Want to Know More?
Though lengthy enough, this article only told some small pieces of this airplane's great history and its service to TWA. There's much more to know. If you're interested in learning more, our guide would suggest two great articles as a starting point:     

For Your Information
"Spring has sprung" at the museum, as Kansas City awakens from another winter. Activity at our museum and the Downtown Airport is picking up as the weather gets nicer. We hope you'll take advantage of the pleasant days ahead and come see us. We have more than ever to show you! 

A reminder that the museum's Hangar Dance will be held on April 29, 2017, in the Signature Aircraft Services hangar, adjacent to our museum. This is our largest fundraiser of the year and is a really great evening. We hope you'll join us. Find more information at: http://twamuseumguides.blogspot.com/2017/03/blog-post_96.html

Article written by Wayne Hammer
Edited by Larry Dingman
Additional editing and information provided by Jon Proctor
Copy editing by Pam Tucker
A special thanks to our museum's Archives staff, for their assistance in producing this article.


Footnotes
1 TWA Today, vol. 35, No. 11 / May 22, 1972. 
2 TWA Today, vol. 35, No. 14 / July 3, 1972. 
3 A Life Aloft - From DC-3 To 747, by Capt. Walt Gunn, c 1987, Wings Publications